Jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), also know as Chinese date, is native to China and has been grown and enjoyed for over 4,000 years. The tree is deciduous and is grown as an ornamental fruiting tree that can reach 30–40 feet tall (grown on a standard root stock), and grows well in the United States. Mature trees can produce between 40–100 pounds of fruit per season. Some varieties have spines on their branches and should be handled with care when planting.
Choosing a Variety of Jujube Tree
Li Jujube – A popular cultivar, produces large, round fruit that can weigh up to 3 oz. Good picked at the yellow-green stage and eaten fresh.
Lang Jujube – Another very popular variety that produces large pear-shaped fruit. For this variety it is best to eat dried fruit.
Honey Jar Jujube – The fruit is round to elongated and small to medium sized. Excellent for fresh eating, this jujube is very sweet and crisp, like sugar cane. Tree grows to 20 feet.
Shanxi Li Jujube – the most popular fresh eating variety in China. Medium to large fruit that has a sweet apple flavor. Very productive tree.
Soil – Jujube fruit trees can grow in a wide range of soil types and pH ranges, but good drainage is required.
Water – Once the trees are established, they can be very drought tolerant, but for good yields, trees should be watered.
Fertilizing – Trees will survive with little additional fertilizing, however, for the best yields, feed with a fruit tree fertilizer once the tree is established. No need to fertilize a newly planted tree.
Sun – Jujubees require full sun to thrive and they love in hot and dry regions.
Trees will put out sprouts (suckers) from the roots that should be removed at or below the soil level. Best to do the main pruning during the dormant season, suckers can be removed at any time.
Harvesting the Fruit
Fruit will change color from dark green to yellow-green and when fully mature, the fruit will be a rich reddish-brown to red color (September to October, depending on the variety). The maturation can be divided into three phases:
- White mature – Fruit is close to full size and skin changes from green to greenish-white.
- Crisp mature – Fruit is full size and skin has changed color to partially reddish-brown. Flesh is still crisp and is very sweet.
- Fully mature – Skin changes color to fully red and is wrinkled. Flesh is very sweet but drier.
To eat fresh, pick when fruit is still firm, like an apple. The stage is the white or crisp mature stage. If you prefer dried fruit, allow the fruit to hang on the tree until the skin wrinkles and is a red color.
How to Enjoy Jujube Fruit
Fresh – Jujubes can be a substitute for apples in recipes. Add to salads, or eaten as a snack.
Dried – When picked dried (best variety for this is the Lang), dried jujube fruit can be added to recipes that call for dates or raisins, or add to your favorite trail mix recipe.
Jujube tea is very easy to make and here is a site with the recipe, along with some interesting information about the health benefits of jujube fruit. These fruits have been used for centuries in Chinese medicine. Nutritionally jujubes are high in vitamin C, flavonoids and other components that are beneficial.
Grow Organic has many jujube trees for sale.
The fruit can be eaten fresh and dried. Plant a jujube tree for some beauty, great eating and...grow organic for Life!
Colleen, I am not aware of any thornless jujubes, I know we do not carry any varieties. Might check with a local nursery or try a google search.
Are there thornless varieties of jujubes?
Thanks for the instant reply. The tree would be planted in bottom lands on a mound about a foot above the surrounding ground. Every few years during a heavy rain season the ground around the mound becomes saturated with run off that slowly flows downhill. Pomegranate trees nearby seem to do well. By spring the surface is dry and the sub-soil remains moist. The soil is actually well drained, but seasonally wet. I was planning to plant a carob tree, but they hate “wet feet”. I’m not sure how sensitive jujube trees are to seasonal moisture.
Martin, I would not recommend planting a tree in an area that floods or has that much moisture in the winter. You could plant it in a raised bed so the roots will not be in standing water.
Can jujubes grow in well drained soil that is occasionally flooded for several months in the winter/spring? The tree itself will be grown on a slight mound above the water, but the subsoil can be saturated with slow moving water. Can the tree tolerate having wet roots for several weeks or months? We have perfect place for one, but the occasional flood waters have me concerned.