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9 Steps for Growing Big Garlic!

Garlic is one of the easiest veggies to grow, but sometimes those big green tops yield a harvest of disappointingly small heads. After nearly a year of growing garlic from cloves by patiently watering, weeding and fertilizing, you'll want large flavorful garlic for your favorite recipes!

Here’s 9 steps to take, from pre-planting preparation through harvest, to help you grow your biggest garlic heads yet. In addition to following all of the garlic growing steps outlined below, it is important to plant your garlic at the right time.

Best Time to Plant Garlic

Plant garlic in the fall (September and October are best.) It should be at least 2 weeks before your first frost of the season. This affords your garlic the best possible chances to withstand winter conditions by giving it ample time to establish. November is late to plant garlic, December is marginal.

How to Grow Garlic 

1. Select the best variety for your region

Not all seed garlic grows equally well everywhere. Most seed garlic requires sufficient cold temperatures in winter to develop good heads in spring, but some varieties are more tolerant of warm weather. 

Hardneck garlic needs exposure to 40-50°F for 6 to 12 weeks for the biggest heads. Softneck garlic such as California Early White and California Late White are a good choice for warm climates. 

If you live in an area with warm winters, avoid garlic described as “great for cold areas.” Growing garlic varieties that are not adapted to your climate can result in smaller heads.

2. Prepare the soil for planting

Garlic tolerates a wide variety of soils, but for large heads it is important to prepare your garden with the optimum nutrients and conditions before planting.

Garlic prefers:

  • Loose, loamy soil with high organic matter content
  • Soil with good drainage. Boggy or heavy wet soils can cause cloves to rot or develop poorly.
  • If your garden soil is not suitable for garlic, consider growing it in a raised bed for better drainage.
  • If you fertilize your garden, only do so between pre-planting time and late spring when scapes begin to form. Otherwise you could encourage too much top growth instead of head development.
  • Be careful also of over-fertilizing with nitrogen-rich fertilizers in the fall, this could lead to stimulating top growth and result in frost damage in very cold winter areas. For details on soil preparation for garlic, see our Garlic Planting and Growing Guide.
planting garlic cloves

3. Plant the biggest cloves

The biggest garlic heads grow from the biggest garlic cloves. Large garlic cloves have more energy stored up to help get your garlic off to a good start, and are more resistant to frost damage. When separating cloves for planting, select the largest cloves for growing garlic heads, and use the smaller ones for growing spring green garlic. Just harvest in spring when the leaves have grown, and use like garlic chives.

If you saved some of your harvested garlic for planting, select the larger of your heads for seed garlic and eat the smaller heads. While the larger ones are more appetizing, if you select larger heads for planting this year, you’ll have more big heads for both planting and eating in future years.

4. Give them room to grow

Plant your garlic with plenty of room for their roots to grow, and to keep the garlic from competing with each other for nutrients and water. Spacing them at 6 inches when planting is best. This also is close enough for them to provide some shade to each other while growing, which also helps with the next step.

5. Keep growing garlic cool

The biggest garlic experiences a long cool winter and early spring when it establishes its root system and prepares for head development, followed by a long (but not too hot) spring and early summer growth period when the heads grow and divide. Head growth starts when the soil temperature is around 60° F, and ends when the soil reaches 90° F.

The key to this step is to keep your garlic’s soil cool for as long as possible until it is ready for harvest. This will give it the longest time possible to develop large heads. If your soil gets too hot too early, head growth will stop when they are still small.

How to Keep Your Garlic Cool in the Summer

  • Select a planting site that is shaded during the hottest part of the day.
  • Mulch deeply with light colored material such as straw to help reflect light, insulate the soil from heat, and retain moisture – all of which keep the soil temperature lower.
  • In areas where the ground freezes, mulching also protects the garlic from getting too cold. Compost, Cocoa Mulch, or Mega Mulch are also good mulch options.
  • You can also shade your garlic patch with shade fabric.

6. Plenty of water

A good irrigation plan will also help to increase head size. Mulching helps to reduce evaporation, so your soil stays moist longer and less water needs to be applied. Water your seed garlic deeply but infrequently (allow the surface to dry out between watering, but keep it moist several inches down). This will encourage the roots to grow deeper to find water, instead of staying in the upper regions of the soil where the temperature is higher.

7. Weed your garlic beds

Weeds growing among your garlic provide unnecessary competition for nutrients and water. Weed your garden regularly! Mulching can also help to reduce the amount of weeds that sprout up.

Garlic scape

8. Remove scapes right away

Scapes are the flower stalks that hardneck garlic produces in the spring and early summer. Check your growing garlic frequently for these, and remove them at leaf level. They’re good to eat, so don’t throw them out! They should not be allowed to grow because this takes energy away from head growth.

9. Harvest at the right time

Make sure that your garlic is fully grown before harvesting. When your garlic is ready, it will not grow anymore and is considered mature when the tops are a third (the 4 bottom leaves) brown or when it falls over (for softneck varieties).

When your garlic tops begin to yellow, stop watering them. Harvest garlic 2 weeks later and cure them. Don’t wait too long, or the papery covering will start to break down and they won’t store as well. Your garlic will not all be ready at the same time, so harvest each head as needed.

46 comments

  • Fran, are you sure it is not elephant garlic? That tends to be a little wetter than garlic. If it is garlic, then maybe it was not cured or at least not fully cured. That tends to increase the flavor of the garlic and makes the cloves also a little drier.

    Suzanne
  • I receive garlic from a local cultivator. They are very large bulbs. But I notice when I cut into them, that they are watery and have the consistency of a raw potato. They taste a little bitter and they are not very pungent or have that real smooth garlic flavor. What do you think went wrong?

    Fran
  • Shirley, There are quite a few reasons why garlic does not bulb up. Not enough phosphorus is one and another reason is the soil gets too warm and the garlic stops increasing in size. If you had a very warm summer, and your soil went over 90F, then the garlic stops increasing in size. Next year try to keep your garlic cooler by adding some mulch over the soil.

    Suzanne
  • Kate, curing garlic really just means to dry it out after digging. It gives the outer wrapper time to dry and protect the cloves inside! Cure the garlic in the shade, or indoors. Do not leave in direct sunlight or the bulbs will get sunburned and rot. Make sure there is good air circulation or they may become moldy and rot. A good way to cure garlic is to tie them in bunches, or braid them together (if it is a softneck variety) and hang them in the garage or barn, away from windows. The garlic should be cured in about 2-4 weeks. When the top is fully dried and also the roots. I like to find a big tree and tie up the garlic in small bunches and hang under the tree. But if you have a big barn or shed, that will be perfect. You just don’t want the garlic to get wet, or it may rot. After it is cured, trim off the roots (but not too close to injure the bottom of the bulb) and the top can be trimmed to about an inch. Store the garlic in paper bags, mesh bags or in a box in a cool dry place. Don’t store it in the refrigerator, that will stimulate it to sprout.

    Suzanne
  • I have always planted a cold-hardy garlic and never had a problem until this year. All were very small. Our winter was not nearly as cold as usual – no snow on the ground. But we are not warm weather winters, either. So please recommend a garlic for the new in-between climate.

    Shirley
  • How do you cure garlic?

    Kate
  • Nick, you might want to consider getting a soil test. Possibly there is not enough phosphorus and nitrogen to grow a good size bulb. Also are you getting enough cold if you are growing hardnecks?

    Suzanne
  • Elisabeth, as long as the garlic leaves are fully composted, they should not be a problem.

    Suzanne
  • Hi there,

    I’ve been growing hard neck garlic in Northern Ontario for a few years now. The bulbs are full sized, but I’m only getting 2 or 3 massive cloves per bulb. Every so often I do get a bulb with 4 to 6 cloves but it’s rare.

    These are purple stripe garlic and everywhere says that a bulb should have between 8 and 10 cloves, but I’ve never seen a bulb come close to that.

    The plants are otherwise large and healthy. They grow in well drained soil and deep mulch.

    Nick
  • I’ve read that you shouldn’t plant legumes in soil that previously had garlic planted in it. I just finished curing my garlic and am getting ready to put the discarded leaves from the garlic plants into the compost. Would compost containing garlic leaves also be detrimental to legumes if added to the soil prior to planting?

    Elisabeth Canuel
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